Since all three criteria are relevant in each phase of the reform process, it is possible to present the If the ReformCompass as a whole represents a type of “pilot” that guides one through the reform process, concrete project management tools are required in the individual phases and for the individual criteria. They assist in determining positions, broadening individual themes and preparing for strategic decision-making.
In this section, selected tools are described in brief – with content, goals, procedures and application options in the context of the ReformCompass, as well as further literature references. In addition you will find, where necessary, concrete templates to fill out or work on as well as (fictional) examples as to how and where the tools can be used in practice.
Adhocracy is software that enables internet-based participation and voting procedures and thus allows relevant reform actors and citizens to be included in all phases of decision-making. The core of Adhocracy is a proposal system with which proposals are collected, discussed and ultimately voted on.
The balanced scorecard (BSC) is a strategic planning and management instrument that is used to reconcile existing activities with the visions and strategic goals of an organization, improve information exchange as well as monitor the performance of the organization.
Mediation is a tool to work out a solution in conflict situations with the participation of affected persons. This tool is in particular suitable for ensuring the implementation of decisions and possibly solving particularly high-conflict situations. High-conflict situations can arise in particular in infrastructure measures such as developing networks.
The future workshop is a tool with which problems are identified and solutions developed in moderated group discussions using creative techniques. The tool is used to gain external (technical) knowledge and including affected interests. Through the moderated discussions and the use of creative techniques, future workshops should assist in identifying problems not yet known and working out approaches to solutions not yet thought of.
The goal pyramid is a form of hierarchical goal-structuring. It is used to subdivide strategic goals into operative goals and thus gain better accessibility as well as a higher motivational effect through goal orientation. Generally, a goal pyramid is divided into three to five hierarchical goal levels. The higher the goal level, the more concrete the individual goals
Groupware refers to applications that enable decentralized cooperation between different team members in real-time. This is therefore known as “collaborative software”. It is used within the core group of reform drivers, i.e. the strategy group and assists in improving internal communication and cooperation between reform actors as well as sharing knowledge or identifying knowledge gaps and working on them.
Knowledge maps serve to record and visualize existing knowledge resources in a structured way. Identifying and allocating knowledge ensures that a transparent and graphic directory of available experts, knowledge databases, structures and applications can be set up.
The term “options analysis” includes analytical methods that serve to systematically compare options for action. Options analysis is used, for instance, in regulatory impact assessments or in the valuation of investments. In a systematic comparison, options for action are evaluated for their effectiveness, associated costs and, for instance, also unintended consequences.
Scenario development is an instrument used for drafting a future-proof strategy. It is used to comprehensively depict various future scenarios and to take these into account in strategic decision-making. Scenario development assists in making decisions not by expecting a desired or probable future but by being prepared for possible worse, better or unexpected alternatives.
With the use of social media reform actors can communicate authentically and transparently as well as receive direct, but not necessarily representative, feedback. Social media includes all the interactive and direct communication channels on the Internet (Web 2.0). Social media play a key role in reform communication externally, affected persons and interested parties.
Stakeholder analysis is a tool for systematically analyzing the existing interests and possible influencing factors that play a role in an intended reform. Stakeholder analysis makes it possible to identify the affected actors of an intended reform (so-called stakeholders) as well as their interests and to decide how these interests can be included.
With a SWOT analysis, an actual situation can be assessed in detail and strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats can be recorded. Strengths and weaknesses are factors internal to the organization and opportunities and threats are external factors which cannot be influenced directly.