Stakeholder analysis is a tool for systematically analyzing the existing interests and possible influencing factors that play a role in an intended reform. Stakeholder analysis makes it possible to identify the affected actors of an intended reform (so-called stakeholders) as well as their interests and to decide how these interests can be included. Stakeholders can be sources of knowledge and experiences who are included in the intended reform and take responsibility in the reform process. In this way, any conflicts can be proactively avoided. For this reason, the stakeholder analysis should be used in particular for intended reforms that are sensitive for the public, require participation from the public or are internally controversial.
The affected actors/interests can be e.g.:
- Charitable organizations (associations, organizations, etc)
- Users of certain governmental services (citizens, companies, etc)
- Providers of certain governmental services (authorities, business partners, etc)
The following questions are answered in the stakeholder analysis:
- Which actors/interests are affected by our intended reform?
- What is the attitude of these interests to our intended reform?
- How influential are these interests?
- Do we want to or do we have to include certain interests? If yes, how can we include them?
Make a list of the names of all the possible affected parties or interest groups and specify which interests are represented by the respective stakeholders
Assess the influence of these stakeholders according to low, medium or high influence on the intended reform
Assess stakeholders whether they are opponents or proponents of the intended reform, or if they have a neutral stance towards the intended reform
Represent the results graphically in a matrix (by using the template, metaplan technique, etc)
Decide which contribution individual stakeholders will make to the intended reform (technical knowledge, methodological expertise, etc)
Decide how the stakeholders will be included (information, participation, etc)
Determine the concrete tasks that can be given to the stakeholders
- Phase 1 – Strategy group:
- Competence: Identify and include internal competencies; find a core group
- Capability to implement: Identify important actors for the implementation of the intended reforms; consider the nature and intensity of the inclusion
- Phase 2 – Agenda Setting:
- Competence: Identify actors and interests; recognize possible conflicts
- Communication: Identify multipliers and include them (academia, media, etc)
- Capability to implement: Gain actors for the reform; enter into alliances if applicable
- Phase 3 – Formulating and decision-making:
- Competence: Define actors that are to be included in the implementation and define tasks that can be given to the actors
- Communication: Define actors that must be informed of the intended reform
- Capability to implement: Define actors that could be proponents or opponents of the intended reform; identify potential conflicts
- Phase 5 – Impact evaluation:
- Capability to implement: Define actors that are already participating or that are to participate in the future
Bertelsmann Stiftung „Eine Stadt für uns alle – Handbuch zur Entwicklung kommunaler Strukturen für die Jugendbeteiligung“ 2011. Accessible: www.bertelsmann-stiftung.de/cps/rde/xchg/bst/hs.xsl/publikationen_88592.htm (Downloaded 18.03.2013).
Bundesministerium des Innern „Handbuch für Organisationsuntersuchungen und Personalbedarfsermittlung“ 2007. Accessible: www.orghandbuch.de (Downloaded 18.03.2013).
- Strategic Core Group
- Ensuring factual bases
- Guaranteeing Implementation
- Agenda setting
- Picking up on future-related issues
- Fostering a desire for reform
- Calculating the chances of success
- Formulating and Decision-Making
- Formulating reform plans
- Building trust
- Obtaining majority support
- Ongoing Impact Evaluation
- Keeping options open
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